Monday, February 28, 2011

Careers in Aviation

Aviation is a large field so it will not be possible to cover all career options in one post. To easily understand each career prospects of aviation, I will split the guidance materials into different posts. Student can choose their options depend on their particular interest.
This is the first post on Careers in Aviation; it outlines overview of aviation industry and job profiles.
Overview :
Aviation is a general term which includes the science and technology of flight through the air. Aviation also applies to the mode of travel provided by the aircraft as carriers of passengers and cargo, and as such is part of the total transportation system. Aviation also describes the employment of aircraft in such fields as military aviation. The world of the airplane, including the people who manufacture, market, and repair aircraft or who work in allied industries, is frequently spoken as aviation.
Aviation is broadly grouped into three classes :
  • General aviation,
  • Air transport aviation (commercial aviation), and
  • Military aviation.
General aviation comprises of all aviation not included in military or air-transport aviation.
Commercial aviation includes passenger airlines and cargo air services (domestic and international operations), air taxi and charter operations. The major function of commercial aviation is the movement of persons and commodities.
Military aviation includes all forms of aviation in military activities i.e. the air force and the aviation arms of the navy and army.
Aviation Job Profiles :
A career in aviation has gained much popularity. The industry has been growing significantly over the last few years. The numbers of domestic and international carriers have been doubled and the requirement for professionals in the field has also been increased.
Aspirants can make career in any sectors of aviation industry; however there are separate eligibility criteria for each sector. The major career options are available in commercial aviation sector. One can look out at options such as customer support, ticket reservation, cargo management, logistic, aviation administration, aircraft engineering and maintenance, flight crew, flight dispatchers, cabin crew, ground operations and many more. The list of aviation career options can be stretch as per departmental wise. Even the government or aviation regulatory bodies offer numerous job profiles related to this field.
The commercial airlines have the following pattern of organizational structure like airlines operations which includes flight and ground operations, maintenance, security, safety, marketing, HR and finance divisions. Here are some listed jobs profiles not in brief just an outline. Brief of each individual job will not be possible in one post, so the career prospect of each job will be covered in different posts.
  • Pilots : The job of pilot is one of the most adventurous career in aviation. It is a specialised job and requires intensive training along with specialised knowledge of air navigation, interpretation of meteorological reports, operations of sophisticated electronic and mechanical controls.
  • Aeronautical Engineers : Aeronautical engineering is the branch of engineering concerned primarily with the design and construction of aircraft structures and power units, and with the special problems of flight in the atmosphere. Candidates with aeronautical degrees have excellent career opportunities in the aviation industry.
  • Air Hostess : This profession attracts smart and young individuals who love to do a lot of traveling and believe in hard work. The primary role of an air hostess is to ensure passenger safety. In addition to this, they are often tasked with customer service duties such as serving meals and drinks, as a secondary responsibility. The majority of air hostess for most airlines are female, though a substantial number of males have entered the industry.
  • Airline Ticketing : The job includes reservation and booking of flight tickets for the customers and also the job planning of routes. Basically the job is customer oriented, so an individual require good communication skills. There is no particular requirement about education background, but graduation in any stream should be an advantage. Under graduates may also get an opportunity but require some experience. There are some diploma courses available in ticketing management which should give good advantage for career boost.
  • Customer Service Jobs : Nowadays customer service jobs are in great demand especially for young and hardworking people. Customer satisfaction is the main priority for all the airlines today. Customer service executives are entrusted with the duty of looking after various problems and requirements of the clients.
  • Apart from above, one can also look out for job opportunities in administration, traffic regulation, cargo management, ground operations, security agent, aircraft maintenance and other areas related to this field.
 As discussed the organizational size of commercial airlines, it will not be easy to cover career brief of each department in one post. So I will post the career brief of each individual job as a separate post. Check Kokan Tribune Blog regularly.

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Why to buy Gold

An individual will always have a question why to buy gold; some might buy gold as an Investment or Traditional use. This article from highlights the importance of buying gold.

-- Source of Information : --

Gold is one of the chemical elements. Gold’s chemical symbol is Au and its atomic number is 79. Its chief characteristics are that it is inert and malleable. Inert means gold does not interact with other chemicals or compounds. Gold doesn’t tarnish and even the strongest acids have no effect. Thus, gold lasts forever - and stays shiny the whole time!

Gold has many industrial uses, but its main historical uses have been for jewellery and money - both are a store of value. Gold has been used as a store of value for at least 5000 years. Gold is measured and prices are quoted in Troy Ounces and Grams. As an example of gold’s ability to store value, 2000 years ago one ounce of gold would buy a fine man's outfit. Today one ounce of gold will still buy a good quality man's wool suit with enough left over to buy a few shirts, a tie, some underwear, socks, a pair of shoes and a belt!

Gold has been called a “barometer of fear”. When people are anxious about the economy - they turn to gold and bid the price up. The two main things that make people anxious are deflation and inflation. Most think that deflation is "falling prices" and inflation is "rising prices." Actually, rising and falling prices are symptoms. The root causes are decreases (deflating) or increasing (inflating) of the money supply. Gold has the remarkable ability to store value in both deflationary and inflationary times.

The correct way to think about owning gold is as insurance. Gold is a store of value virtually independent of economic conditions. Unlike shares of a company or government bonds - gold will always retain value. Gold's most important use is insurance against the paper (fiat) currency of the country you live in. Almost every country has had at least one major "currency crisis" over the last one hundred years. Those that had some of their wealth in gold survived. Unfortunately many people saw their saving become worthless - sometimes in a matter of days.

So, think of gold as insurance. Do not think of gold as a way to "make money". Do not try and "time the market". It is better to buy gold in small amounts regularly, every month for example, over a period of time. The percentage of your total wealth devoted to gold is a personal decision and depends on your particular situation. A conservative goal would be ten percent. In times of uncertainty the percentage should be much higher.

Do not worry about selling gold when that time comes. Gold is recognized and valued everywhere in the world. It is easier to sell gold than to buy gold! Of course gold can be used in barter or trade as it has for thousands of years.

To summarize, gold is an insurance policy against economic uncertainty. Gold can protect against both deflation and inflation. Everyone should store some of their wealth in gold if at all possible.

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Sunday, February 27, 2011

Raigad District, Places of Visit

General Information :

Raigad district is located in south western side of Maharashtra state. The district head quarter is Alibag. Alibag is situated on the western coast of India and on shore of Arabian Sea.

Raigad district consist of 15 talukas : Alibag, Pen, Murud, Mangaon, Tala, Roha, Sudhagad (Pali), Mahad, Mhasla, Poladpur, Shrivardhan, Panvel, Khalapur, Karjat and Uran.

The main rivers in Raigad district are Kalu, Patalganga, Amsa, Kundalika, Ghod, Ulhas, Bhogawati, Savitri and Gandhar.

The district includes towns/cities of Panvel, Pen, Khopoli, Khalapur, Uran, Patalganga, Rasayani, Nagothana, Poladpur, Alibag, Karjat and Mahad. The biggest city both in area and population is Panvel. The district also includes the isle of Gharapuri or Elephanta, located in Uran tehasil which has ancient Hindu and Buddhist caves.

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University is a unitary, autonomous university located at Lonere in Raigad district, Maharashtra, India.

Tourist Spot :

Prime attraction in district are as follows :
  • Forts : Raigad and Murud-Janjira fort.

  • Holyplaces like Ballaleshwar Ganpati – Pali, Varad Vinayak Gapati – Mahad, Birla Ganesh Temple – Alibag, Kanakeshwar – Alibag and Elephanta Caves.

  • Beaches : Alibag, Murud – Janjira and Hari-Harihareshwar.

  • Hill Station : Matheran.

Sindhudurg District Places of Visit

General Information :

Sindhudurg district is the Southern part of the ‘Konkan’ which is historically famous for its long coast line and safe harbors. The district is named after the fort of Sindhudurg (which means “fort in the sea”), which lies on a rocky island just off the coast of Malvan.

Sindhudurg is bordered on the North by Ratnagiri District, on the South by the state of Goa, on the west by the Arabian Sea, and to the east across the crest of the Western Ghats or Sayadhris is Kolhapur District.

Sindhudurg district comprises of eight talukas : Sawantwadi, Kudal, Vengurla, Malvan, Devgad, Kankavli, Vaibhavwadi and Dodamarg. Smaller towns include Talere, Vaibhavwadi, Shirgaon, Kharepatan, Achara, Banda and the hill resort of Amboli.

The modern township of Sindhudurgnagari is the headquarters of Sindhudurg district.

The main rivers in the district are Devgad, Gad, Shuk, Achra, Terekhol, Sahyadri, Kurla, Kalna and Tilari.

Sindhudurg being a coastal district, the climate is generally moist and humid and the temperature variations during the day and throughout the seasons are not large.

Mango is a major factor to the life of Sindhudurg. Varieties of Alphonso Mango from Devgad are particularly popular. Other varieties of mango are Mankur, Pāyari and Karel (used for preparing Mango Pickle) are also popular for their distinct taste.

Most of the district area covered by dense rain forest, Amboli hill station area is most suitable habitat for wild animals like leopard, wild cats, rabbits, wild hen and some times wild buffalo also appears in winter season.

National Highway 17 passes through this area. With 7 railway stations, a 103 km stretch of Konkan Railway line passes through this district. It has good road and rail links with Goa and Bombay

Places of attraction :
  • Tilari Dam (Dodamarg)
  • Redi Ganesh Vengurla
  • Navadurga Temple at Redi
  • Navdurga Redi
  • Amboli Hill Station Sawantwadi
  • Sindhudurg Fort Malvan
  • Vijaydurg Fort Devgad
  • Dev Kaleshwar Temple, Nerur
  • Kunkeshwar temple Devgad
  • Lakshminarayan Temple, Walwal
  • Shri Bramhanand Swami Math, Ozar
  • Shri Sai Baba Temple (oldest in India), Kudal
  • Napapne Waterfall, Vaibhavwadi
  • Bharadi Devi temple, Aangnewadi
  • Konkan Tourism
  • Achara Beach
  • Shree Dev Rameshwar Temple, Achara
  • Bhalchandra Maharaj Ashram, Kankavli

Beaches :
  • Redi
  • Shiroda
  • Tarkarli
  • Malvan
  • Vijaydurg
  • Velagar
  • Bhogve
  • Nivti
  • Khavne
  • Devbaug
  • Wayaangani
  • Achara
  • Mochemad
  • Mithbaon
  • Sagaareshwar (Ubhadanda)
  • Chivla
  • Baagayat

Saturday, February 26, 2011

Railway Budget 2011

-- Source of News – --
As usual India Railway budget is always healthy, 2011 is not a difference at all.

Here are the highlights of the Railway Budget 2011-12, presented by Railways Minister Mamata bannerjee in Parliament today :
  • No hike in passenger fare and freight rates.
  • A new portal for e-ticketing to be launched shortly. Booking charges will be cheaper with a charge of only Rs. 10 for AC classes and Rs.5 for others.
  • Pan-India multi-purpose smart card "Go India" to be introduced.
  • Feasibility study to raise speed of passenger trains to 160-200 kmph to be undertaken.
  • Anti Collision Devise (ACD) sanctioned to cover 8 zonal railways.
  • GPS Based Fog Safe Device to be deployed.
  • All India Security Help line on a single number set up.
  • All state capitals in the North-East except Sikkim to be connected by Rail in next seven years.
  • 700 MW gas-based power plant to be set up at Thakurli in Maharashtra.
  • A scheme for socially desirable projects, "Pradhan Mantri Rail Vikas Yojana" with Non-lapsable fund proposed.
  • Concession to physically handicapped persons to be extended on Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains.
  • Concession of 50% to press correspondents with family increased to twice a year.
  • Senior Citizens concession to be hiked from 30 % to 40 %.
  • Recruitment for 1.75 lakh vacancies of Group C and D including to fill up backlog of SC/ST initiated, 16,000 ex-servicemen to be inducted by March 2011.
  • 2011-12 declared "Year of Green Energy" for Railways.
  • Freight loading of 993 MT and passenger growth of 6.4 % estimated for 2011-12.
  • Gross Traffic Receipts at Rs.1,06,239 crore, exceeding one lakh crore mark for the first time estimated.

With railway budget of 2011, corporates are very happy as there are not raise in the freight charges which is good sign as 'development-oriented' Also, the railways' emphasis on involving the private sector in infrastructure projects as part of Public Private Partnerships (PPP), was also praised by industry organisations

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Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Careers in Commerce

Careers in Commerce
-- Source of Information : Yahoo ! India Education portal, portal and portal --
Bachelors in Commerce or BCom, is as the name itself suggests, gives an overview of the commerce field. Commerce education is known as a foundation for business development. Commerce offers foundation for many professional careers like finance, planning, accountancy, tax practitioners, banking and broking … etc, besides academics, research, and many more.
Persons having interest for accounting, finance, commodities, marketing and trading … etc may generally choose Commerce as first career choice.
Well Known Personality :
Do you know what do steel tycoon Lakshmi Mittal, PepsiCo Chairperson Indira Nooyi and Kinetic Motors’s Joint MD Sullaja Firoda Motwani have in common? Besides being established names, all of them are Commerce graduates.
Not that their illustrious careers were scripted while studying. But their Commerce background definitely aided in setting the stage. It familiarised them with financial foundations of a Company, besides acquainting them with core financial underpinnings that result in smooth functioning of really successful corporations.
BCom basics :
As a stream of study, Commerce can be studied right after 10 years of schooling. After the 10 years of schooling – commerce is available as an option in 10+2 or the Higher Secondary level. After completing Class 12, one can pursue Bachelor of Commerce (BCom) or Bachelor of Commerce (Hons), both three-year full-time programmes.
Commerce is a multidisciplinary field, choose your options carefully. A number of subjects can be studied under Commerce disciplines like accountancy, economics, mathematics, business, finance, stastics and e-commerce among others.
Here are some of the listed subjects of commerce, student can choose depend on their particular interest.
  • Business economics : This would cover concepts like the laws of demand and supply, law of returns, elasticity, theory of pricing under different market forms … etc.
  • Financial accounting : This subject would deal with the preparation of profit and loss statements, balance sheets and final accounts of a company, knowledge of accounting standards, calculation of depreciation and valuation of shares and goodwill of a company.
  • Cost accounting : This would include process, job and contract costing, costing of overheads, standard and variance costing and budgetary control.
  • Income tax : This would encompass the nature and basis of charge of income tax, tax planning, tax deduction, incomes not taxable … etc.
  • Auditing : This would deal with vouching, valuation and verification of transactions, assets and liabilities. It will also include studying the auditing of different organizations like clubs, hospitals and charitable concerns.
  • Business finance : This would include in its scope financial analysis as a diagnostic tool, the management of working capital and its components as well as capital structure leverages.
  • Business law : This subject would discuss the different laws in India relating to, among others, the Companies Act and the Consumer Protection Act.
  • Marketing : This subject would deal with products, pricing methods, promotion, channels of distribution, logistics … etc.
  • Business communication : This subject focuses on the art of business correspondence, business letter writing, memo writing, notices … etc.
Difference between BCom (Honors) and BCom (Pass) :
BCom (Honors) :
B.Com (Honors) is an undergraduate degree designed to inculcate business acumen in students. The course curriculum includes subjects like cost accounting, organizational behaviour and then one can specialize in fields like accounts and economics. You can also pursue courses like Chartered Accountancy along with your BCom. You can better your skills by pursuing post graduation courses like MBA or M.Com.
Scope :
You can join a KPO (Knowledge Process Outsourcing) that deals with processing of payrolls, administration of accounts or insurance at entry level positions. If you’re interested in figures, and balancing ledgers, cost accounts, then you can join as an account assistant or in the auditing department of various firms. Apart from this, you can go for higher education, by pursuing courses like an MBA or an MCom.
BCom (Pass) :
The course is similar to BCom (Honors). The difference lies in the fact that you can specialize in a certain subject in BCom (Honor), but the BCom (Pass) course gives you an overview of all those subjects taught in the honors course.
You can pursue higher education after your graduation. You can pursue courses like MBA or M.Com. Compared to the honors course, the job opportunities are a little less, after pursuing this course.
The following table can illustrate simple differences between B.Com Honors and Pass:

Post Graduate level and beyond :
A BCom graduate may pursue the Master of Commerce, or other post-graduate masters programs such as the Master of Finance (MFin), Master of Accounting (MAcc), Master in Business Administration (MBA). The degree is usually recognised by the various professional accounting bodies, and graduates often therefore pursue accounting designations such as the Chartered Accountant (CA), Certified Public Accountant (CPA), Certified Management Accountant (CMA), Certified General Accountant (CGA), or Financial qualifications such as Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA).
Career prospects :
BCom graduates can get a job in several fields ranging from banks, financial institutions, outsourcing firms, insurance companies, audit firms, aviation, media and defense. A fresh Commerce graduate can start out as account assistant, in CA firm or any other small organisation. Corporate also recruit fresh BCom students directly from campuses. Commerce graduates can also work as researchers and teachers.
Here’s a quick look at the various options :
  • Banking: For a career in banking, one can start off by maintaining accounts. However, to climb up the ladder, you have to clear an exam conducted by the bank. Within the banking sector itself one can choose from a variety of options like retail personal banking, corporate banking, merchant banking, rural banking, treasury group and product management and loans to name some. If you are comfortable with numbers, and have a good presence of minds, there are options galore.
  • Investments : If you are looking forward to making it in the investment sector, it is advisable to start off by assisting an investment banker as experience can help you climb the success ladder. This is especially true for forex and capital trading, as they need a higher amount of experience. Similarly, if you are looking forward to getting into the stock market, it is only experience that will help as experience will give you the knack of how the market functions. Equity research analyst, investment banker, mutual fund executive, capital market manager, financial planner/ asset manager, venture capitalist, and real estate are some of the other options you could choose from.
  • Insurance : Insurance is not very different from the investment sector when it comes to experience. Yes, the key to success here is also experience. Insurance offers jobs like actuary, risk management, insurance surveyor, underwriter … etc.
  • Other fields : Apart from these known ‘commerce’ fields, you can also try your hand in aviation, travel and tourism, media, defense, medical transcription, secretarial practices, and of course, the booming BPO.
Salary Packages :
Pay packages depend on the organisations as well as area of specialisation. Salaries depend on the nature of organisation and type of job. Students with good communication skills tend to get paid better. They are ideal candidates for front-end functions such as customer service, marketing and sales.
So, if you have the financial aptitude and are willing to develop further competency, be rest assured, as a Commerce student you will never be out of a job.

Monday, February 21, 2011

Cashews in Kokan

The cashew (Marathi name Kaju) is a fruit which looks like an inverted heart. Cashew is grown for its fruit cashew apple and for a nut. Cashew nut is grown at the end of cashew apple.

Cashew apple is used for making cashew syrup. The famous Goan feni is produced from cashew apple juice.

Nuts are separated from cashew apple immediately after the harvest. Dried nuts are roasted either in open pan or rotary cylinders. Shelling is done by hands. Soon after roasting kernels are dried in sun or hot air chambers in cashew factory. They are kept in sweating chamber for some time. The nuts are then ready for grading and packing. The premium quality cashews of Sindhudurg are exported worldwide.

Cashew trees grow in rocky land having red soil. Kokan climate is very favorable for cashews plantation and are mainly grown in large scale in Sindhudurg district.
Fruits are ripen from December to May.

The nutritional health facts of cashews

The cashew tree’s leaves and bark as well as the popular cashew apple possess herbal health benefits that include killing bacteria and germs, stopping diarrhea, drying secretions, increasing the libido, and reducing fever, blood sugar, blood pressure and body temperature.

Cashew nuts have gained popularity not only for their succulent flavor but for health benefits, too. Whether roasted, salted, sugared or covered in chocolate, the cashew nut, often used as a flavorful complement to appetizers, main dishes and deserts.

The cashew nut is full of nutritional content. It contains protein and high levels of the essential minerals iron, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, copper and manganese. That is why it is said that Cashew nuts are beneficial for health as they contain heart-protective monounsaturated fats, copper, and magnesium.

Cashew nuts do have a relatively high fat content (12 grams per ounce, 2 grams saturated fat), but it is considered “good fat.” This is due to the agreeable fat ratio in the nut, 1:2:1 for saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated, respectively, which scientists say is the ideal ratio for optimal health.

Sunday, February 20, 2011

Maharashtra scraps Reliance-led Maha Mumbai SEZ

Do you think any of such development will be happening in India as easily as thought by our business community ? Navi Mumbai airport is still an upcoming project, and don't know how long it will take.

Check the below news of Mumbai Reliance led-SEZ, scrap by Maharashtra government due to land acquisition issues.

-- Source of News : Zee News --

Signalling an end to the Reliance-led Maha Mumbai Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Raigad district, the Maharashtra government has said farmers are free to utilise their lands as they deem fit.

The government has taken an important decision to remove the remark on their 7/12 (land record) extracts which so far mentioned that the land was reserved for the SEZ," an official said.

The decision has been taken by Revenue Minister Balasaheb Thorat “in the interests of farmers” as process of land acquisition for the SEZ wasn't completed in the stipulated period, he added.

The period of two years allotted under the Land Acquisition Act to acquire land for the ambitious project had lapsed in December 2009, but the government had so far made no official announcement on the issue.

This meant the 7/12 (land record) extracts of farmers in the project area, comprising 45 villages in Uran, Pen and Panvel talukas, continued to carry the remark that the land was reserved for the SEZ project, preventing farmers from selling, buying, or transferring their lands.

"Farmers were in a dilemma so far, but now they are free to use their lands as they wish. This will set an example for other SEZs in the country," according to Ulka Mahajan of the SEZ Virodhi Sangharsh Samiti.

The land acquisition procedure for the proposed SEZ project, spread over 35,000 acres in Raigad, was started in May 2006. But, the company managed to acquire only 13 percent of the land within the stipulated period, as it faced strong opposition from farmers.

In September 2008, the state government conducted a referendum, in which the villagers voted against the project.

Kokani the Language, Past and Present

We all know that Kokan is land of natural beauty and culture. Like its unique beauty, the language of Kokan known as Kokani is also unique. The word unique has been used for Kokani language because even through it is widely spoken in Kokan, each region has a different dialect, pronunciation style, vocabulary, tone and sometimes, significant differences in grammar.
Roots of Kokani Language :
The origins of Konkani language from the historic viewpoint are very interesting. The Aryans who migrated to India familiarized themselves in North India and established several languages based on the local influence. Depending on their geographical dispersion you can categorize two distinct groups. Punjabi, Rajasthani, Gujarati, and Hindi evolved from Prakrit of Magadha, and Sindhi Maithili, Assamese, Bengali originated from Shouraseni Prakrit. Konkani belongs to the second group, and hence some scholars regard Bengali or Assamese as the mother of Konkani language. However, in reality the three are siblings of the same (now nonexistent) intermediary parent language. The arguments on the matter continue to generate a lot of response among linguists. Some historians argue that it was the language of Aryans who came further South to the Konkan, and hence the name Kokani. The most important point to note here is that Konkani is first seen in the Konkan area. Early adopters used the Brahmi script, but eventually due to the local influence, Nagari (i.e. Devanagari) was used for the benefit of much larger audience.
Also earlier times, Kokanis had business interactions with Arabian countries; therefore some Arabian-Persian words entered in Konkani language. During 11th century Kadamba kings ruled Goa so some Kannada words too found place in Konkani. In the 13th century, Konkani people residing in Kerala accepted some words from Malayalam and Tamil. During 1510, Portuguese came to Goa; they ruled Goa for around 450 years, so some Portuguese words also came in Konkani and are still in use. Konkani has taken some words even from old Marathi. Of late, due to onslaught of English language, many English words and phrases too are seen in this language. The orthography, vocabulary, grammar and overall style of Konkani have an impact of other languages.
Scripts :
Kokani does not have a unique script. It is written in a number of scripts. Devanagari is the official script for Konkani in Goa, whereas Roman script is also popular in Goa. Amongst the Konkani population of Karnataka, the Kannada script is used. Malayalam script is used by the Konkani community in Kerala state, centered on the cities of Cochin and Kozhikode. Urdu script is used by Konkani Muslims in coastal Maharashtra and Bhatkal taluka of Karnataka to write Konkani.
Dialects :
Despite having a small population, Konkani language shows varieties of dialects. The dialect of Konkani can easily be classified according to the region, religion, caste and local tongue influence. Different researchers have classified the dialects differently. N. G. Kalelkar’s classification is based on the historical events and cultural ties of the speakers and he has broadly classified the dialects into three main groups :
  • Northern Konkani : These are the dialects mainly spoken in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra with strong cultural ties to Marathi.
  • Central Konkani : It is the dialects spoken in Goa, where Konkani came in close contact with Portuguese language and culture.
  • Southern Konkani : The dialects which are spoken in the Canara region of Karnataka which came in close contact with Tulu and Kannada.
Kokani Language Today :
Language is identity of every community. If you want to save our community, first we have to save our own language. One should realize a fact that our language is dying and it is our responsibility to save it.
How many Kokanis speak their mother tongue Kokani ? Many of us don’t know the fact that we are the real enemies of our language because we left our language and adopted other domestic or foreign languages such as Marathi, Urdu, English … etc. It is not our mistakes, the modern era has put us in foreign / domestic languages and we adopt those languages and culture and put end to our culture.
In Maharashtra Marathi community believe that Kokani is a dialect of Marathi and did not recognize as a language. The Kokani language is not receiving the respect or status as it deserved and thus it resulted in lack of literature or patronage of the language. But, history has established that even when Konkani language had reached maturity, the Marathi language was not even born.
If one has to see the diversity of today’s Kokani language, one should travel the Indian west coast. In Mumbai, they speak in Marathi accent whereas in Kokan, they stretch the words so that no outsider can understand. The Hindus of Goa liberally use the Portuguese words whereas the Christians use it as if it’s a Portuguese dialect.
A very large number of Kokanis live outside India, either as expatriates or citizens of other countries (NRIs). A significant number of Kokani speakers are found in African continent, Persian Gulf, UK, USA, Canada, Australia … etc. Many families still continue to speak different dialects that their ancestors spoke, which are now highly influenced by the native languages.
Kokani is dying because Kokanis are changing their mother tongue like Catholics have started speaking English, Muslims are adopting Urdu and Hindus are using Marathi. This should be stopped as early as possible otherwise in few years Kokani language will remain as history.
The Kokani language will only be saved when an individual understand the importance to remain with its culture and heritage. To save our language, all Kokanis should speak in their mother language and even teach the language to their children, it may be any dialects try to understand and try to avoid marrying out of Konkani caste.
It is not that we are against any languages; we should respect other languages but should not forget our mother language. Knowing different languages is good practice and nowadays it is not hard to learn any languages, as the media contributes highly. So don’t worry our kids will automatically learn other languages.
Remember Kokani is beautiful language lets conserve it, develop it and proudly call it as our mother tongue.
Note it is practice which makes man perfect. You can become perfect in every language. Take example of former Prime Ministers of India Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Mr. Narasimha Rao. Both were masters of 13 Indian languages. So it is individual responsibility to save his language.

Saturday, February 19, 2011

Kids Exposure to Sunlight

-- Post is revised on 1st March, 2011. Thanks to Dr. Rahmattullah Galsulkar for his contribution to enrich this post --

Parents shall ensure that their kids go out and play regularly, highlighting that children need to be exposed to sunlight at least for an hour every day to keep them naturally healthy.

Parents need to be sensitive to the fact that regular exposure to sun light and playing out in the open every day needs to be factored in as part of a healthy lifestyle.

One should know that Vitamin D is produced by our skin in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation from natural sunlight. Vitamin D prevents osteoporosis, depression, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and even effects diabetes and obesity.
Deprivation of sunlight can lead to low levels of Vitamin D and this can be the cause for the condition of brittle bones, a common and potential case among children who tend to stay indoors all the time. The healing rays of natural sunlight that generate Vitamin D in our skin cannot penetrate glass, so Vitamin D is not even generated when sitting in car or at home.

It is nearly impossible to get adequate amounts of Vitamin D from our diet. Sunlight exposure is the only reliable way to generate Vitamin D in our body.

People with dark skin pigmentation may need 20 - 30 times as much exposure to sunlight as fair-skinned people to generate the same amount of Vitamin D.

Sufficient levels of Vitamin D are crucial for calcium absorption in our intestines. Without sufficient Vitamin D, our body cannot absorb calcium, rendering calcium supplements useless.

Chronic Vitamin D deficiency cannot be reversed overnight. It takes months of Vitamin D supplementation and sunlight exposure to rebuild the body’s bones and nervous system.

Vitamin D is “activated” in our body by our kidneys and liver before it can be used. Having kidney disease or liver damage can greatly impair our body’s ability to activate circulating Vitamin D.

Note that kids who are bought up indoors get addicted to computers and or indoor games, which are not good signs of healthy lifestyle. Therefore parents should take the lead in encouraging kids to be more dynamic in outdoor activities.

Check the product on health/personal care :

Friday, February 18, 2011

Power from Jaitapur nuclear plant won’t come cheap

The electricity generated from the proposed 9,900 MW Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project (JNPP) will be double, even triple the cost of electricity from coal- or gas-fired plants, according to a report.

Check the complete news on dna india node

Thursday, February 17, 2011

Benefits of Grapefruit

-- Source of Information : --
Shahin Ashraf Ali, Posted On Thursday, February 17, 2011

Why eat grapefruits ?

Grapefruits are healthy and healing in cases of some ailments. Grapefruit, a member of the citrus fruit family, must have a place in your fruit bowl.

Fight fatigue :

Had a tiring day at work? Feeling fatigued? Let the natural refreshing and energizing properties of the fruit drive away your tiredness. Have some juice of the fruit mixed with some lemon juice.

Alternative antacid :

Naturopaths believe the juice of grapefruit not only prevents acidity but is an excellent home remedy for treating acidity. Although it belongs to the citric family, it increases the alkalinity of the fluids in the human system.

Controlling diabetes :

It is believed that liberal consumption of grapefruits (three grapefruits thrice a day) effectively controls diabetes. Regular intake is said to prevent diabetes.

Fight the flu :

Maringin is a constituent of grapefruit that helps tone up the digestive system. Thus, along with its acid controlling properties and maringin content, the fruit is said to be a good home remedy in cases of flu.

Rid constipation :

The pulp of grapefruit provides healthy bulk that helps effective bowel movement. Make it a part of your diet to rid yourself of constipation.

Treatment for scanty urination :

Being rich in vitamin C and potassium, grapefruit juice is an effective home remedy to cure scanty urination.

Cure malaria :

The natural quinine content in grapefruit goes in the favour of making the fruit a good home remedy in case of malaria. Naturopaths advise extracting the quinine benefits of the fruit by boiling the fruit and straining the pulp.

Postman to turn banker in rural areas

This steps should help our region too ... as our region has villages and they need banking services.

--- Source of News : Economic Times ---

The postal department and the country’s largest lender, State Bank of India (SBI), are gearing up to take basic banking services to the doorsteps of millions of people in rural areas who have no access to the country’s banking system. The tie-up will see postmen acting as banking correspondents for SBI in over 12,000 villages, collecting deposits and offering small credit and remittance facility to people in far-flung areas. Villagers in these areas currently have no option but to keep hard-earned money at home, losing out on interest and running the risk of theft.

SBI, which has around 5,000 branches in rural or semi-urban areas, hopes to cover 12,492 villages by 2012. "To meet this intiative a tie-up with India Post will be a great advantage," a senior SBI official said. The business correspondent model, set up by the Reserve Bank of India, allows specific individuals and entities such as ‘kirana’ shop-owners , NGOs and post offices to conduct banking business as agents of banks at places other than the bank premises.

India Post has a network of over 1.5 lakh branches. A finance ministry official said the government was keen on such initiatives because of the postal network’s reach. "We have encouraged banks to explore similar tie-ups to speed up the financial inclusion agenda," he said. Last week, the finance minister had alerted banks to the risks involved with not choosing the right kind of business correspondent.

A senior postal department official said, "India Post, or its employees, are undoubtedly the most reliable partners for any bank." However, not everyone is convinced that India Post makes for the best partner. "What if tomorrow the government grants them (India Post) a banking licence? RBI had directed that there should be a business continuity plan (BCP) in place to ensure uninterrupted service... it will be very difficult to find a replacement for such a partner," said a senior executive of Punjab National Bank said.

National Highway No. 17 Modernization

National Highway 17, commonly referred to as NH 17, connects Mumbai-Goa. It passes through different towns, example Panvel, Pen, Kolad, Mangoan, Indapur Mahad, Poladpur, Khed, Chiplun, Hatkhamba (Ratnagiri), Rajapur, Panaji … etc.
Generally highways significantly impacts on local economic growth and development, as well as associated population growth. We should be aware that NH 17 has led to rapid development of Kokan towns and cities along the highway.
Present situation of NH 17 is that it is heavily congested due to increase in number of vehicles. It cannot accommodate any additional capacity because of its width i.e. it has only 2 lanes. The highway need to be modernize as we have to understand that modernization of highway can accommodate additional capacity, increase opportunities for people to travel for business, trade or pleasure and also provide trade routes for goods. Example of modern highway is Mumbai – Pune express way, and we all are aware of development happening within that corridor.
We are hearing about NH 17 modernisation since a decade but there had been any hardly action by the authority. The following are the reason publicized by the authority for the highway modernizing :

  • The central ministry of environment and forest has rejected the state government’s proposal to widen the highway because they believe said that widening the highway to four lanes will eat up space in the Karnala bird sanctuary; and
  • Issues of land acquisition.
Government should think that infrastructure is required for country’s growth. Our country economy is one of the growing economies of world and to cope with the growth it needs infrastructure. As a Konkani, I am being selfish for my region growth, and through this article I would like to highlight that NH 17 modrnisation is important for our region growth.
Let us voice to government to please push NH 17 modernisation plan. Remember any development in our region will boost our region; the example is with us of Konkan Railway.
According to the information available on NHAI (, the following part of NH 17 highway has been approved for extension :
  • 4/6 Laning of Maharastra/Goa Border - Panaji Goa/KNT Border.
  • Panvel - Indapur corridor of 84 km.
What about rest part of the highway ?

Alphanso (Haapoos)

Alphanso mango (Haapoos in Marathi) is often referred to as the king of fruit, and is considered by many to be one of the best in terms of sweetness, richness and flavor. It has considerable shelf life of a week after it is ripe making it exportable. It is also one of the most expensive kinds of mango and is grown mainly in western India. It is in season April through May and the fruit weigh between 150g and 300g each.

The southern district of Ratnagiri and south northern parts of Sindhudurg in Maharashtra state, including regions around the Devgad and Taluka, produce the finest quality alphonso mangoes in India. The variety grown in Devgad in the Kokan region of Maharashtra is supposed to be the best. It's also the most expensive amongst the sub-breeds of Alphonso.

Mangoes are picked up from the tree when they are grown at their normal size and when their colour changes from normal green to slight reddish from the top. When removed from the tree mangoes are ripened at room temperature within approximately three to five days.

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

Black money use for Elections

--- Source of News – NDTV and Sakal ---

For the first time, a politician has spoken out to say that elections are financed using black money, said Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan said, "No legal money finances polls."

With mutual consent, Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha elections should happen together once in every five years. The tenure should be fixed for five years and there should be an option of state fundings for the elections because when the elections happen, we do need donations for the elections and who will give these donations, the ones who give, why will they give donations, nobody gives white money for elections those who give, give it from here and there and without no money, no party can fight in the elections," he said.

The government has recently come under attack from the Supreme Court and the Opposition over the lack of information about black money sent abroad by Indians.

Read more at:

Qatar : New group to promote ideology of Congress

-- Source of Information : Gulf Times Qatar --

It gives immense pleasure to announce one of our Kokani Brother Mr. Hassan Chougule has been appointed as President of All India Overseas Congress for Qatar.

Mr. Hasan Chougule is one of the prominent business man in Qatar and highly active in social activities.

Offcourse the news is a matter of pride for Kokan as to have our Kokani brother stand ahead of so many other big players in Qatar.

Check the detail news on Qatar English Newspaper Gulf Times node :

Take effective decisions at the workplace

Nowadays decision making is very important, the necessity of it may require at any part of our life may be at personal level our working environment. When decisions are require, always consider both side of coins i.e. good and worst scenarios. I had come across a very good article on Economic Times which I would like to share with my readers, please read the extract below.

--- Source of Information : Economic Times --

In today’s fast paced and extremely competitive world, making effective decisions has become even more necessary. So brutal is the environment that a single bad decision could cost an upcoming manager his/her career.

Sometimes, decisions need to be made in the fraction of a second. There is no time for a collaboration or consensus. At other times, it is a long and research-intensive process. Multiple aspects, perspectives and opinions must be considered.

Keeping this contrast in mind, employees often find it difficult to form concrete parameters which will help them make effective decisions. However, here are some guidelines which will help make you a better decision-maker at work.

Understand the context :

No decision can be made effectively if you do not understand its fundamental basis. Understand the problem at hand in context, the various choices, the stakeholders involved, the consequences of the decision and its implications.

Know and Research :

The employee who makes the best decisions isn’t necessarily the one who is the most experienced. “The best decision-maker is the person who knows the organisation the best. It is only when he/she is acutely aware of the firm’s current strengths, weaknesses and operations that decisions will be effective.”

Additionally, being well informed about the prevailing industry atmosphere, global trends and the competition is imperative. “Research is the basis of good decisions. And by research, I mean hardcore, current and verifiable facts,”.

At the same time, don’t be over reliant on data and statistics. “In the process of number-crunching, managers often forget the humane aspect of their decisions. Also, numbers aren’t gospel; they can be misleading or untrue. Many employees succumb to what we call ‘paralysis by analysis’ and hence make poor decisions,”.

Emotions Quotient :

Sometimes, the best decisions don’t come from the head, but from the heart, and they can be effective too.

Attitude Alert :

The attitude you bring to the table during the decision-making process is of utmost importance. Always remember that it’s nothing personal, so leave your preconceived biases behind.

Decision-makers are commonly thought to be bossy, dominating and all-knowing. But remember, the ideal decision maker is one who listens, considers and collaborates when time permits. It’s also necessary to be flexible and open to criticism or divergent views.

Collective Thought :

The best decisions are often ones that stem from varied views and opinions. Collaborative decisions, that involve various stakeholders, are usually most effective at the workplace.

Consider Alternatives :

One of the biggest mistakes made while taking decisions is getting stuck to a ‘pet solution’ and refusing to see other alternatives. It is important to consider various alternatives to a problem. These should then be evaluated using the pre-decided criteria or parameters to come up with the best option.

Also, do remember to consider the trade-offs or the opportunity costs involved.

While it is important to come up with a final decision, it is equally important to come up with a Plan B.

“Be prepared for the eventuality that things may not work out as planned. At the same time, it doesn’t help to be overly pessimistic. Hope for the best but be prepared for the worst,” signs off Pant.

Top secret Coca Cola recipe revealed!

-- Source of News : Yahoo India News :
Posted 15 Feb, 2011,

London, Feb 15 (IANS) The top secret recipe of one of the world's most popular beverages, Coca Cola, which was kept locked in a steel vault in Atlanta city and guarded 24-hours a day, has now been leaked by a website.

The drink was created by pharmacist John Pemberton in 1886. Its recipe reportedly contains the exact measures of all the different oils needed for Coca Cola's secret ingredient - Merchandise 7X.

Despite making up only one percent of the drink's total formula, Merchandise 7X gives the popular soft drink its unique taste, the Daily Telegraph reported.

However, website claims to have discovered a list in a photograph in a newspaper article giving the ingredients and exact quantities to make the drink.

The Feb 8, 1979, edition of the Atlanta Journal-Constitution has a photograph of someone holding open a book with a recipe claimed to be an exact replica of Pemberton's.

The 'secret' recipe is al follows :

- Fluid extract of Coca 3 drams USP

- Citric acid 3 oz

- Caffeine 1 oz

- Sugar 30 (quantity unclear from the markings)

- Water 2.5 gal

- Lime juice 2 pints 1 qrt

- Vanilla 1 oz

- Caramel 1.5 oz or more to colour

- 7X flavour (use 2oz of flavour to 5 gals syrup)

- Alcohol 8 oz

- Orange oil 20 drops

- Lemon oil 30 drops

- Nutmeg oil 10 drops

- Coriander 5 drops

- Neroli 10 drops

- Cinnamon 10 drops

News is posted from Yahoo India News node

How to deal with hyperactive children

--- Source of Information : ---
Posted On: Friday, February 11, 2011
Alternative healing offers certain remedies to bring about calmness and reduce frustration and stress in both hyperactive children and their parents. Mita Bhan tells you more
Bringing up a hyperactive child can be difficult. Not only is it tiring to handle a child with so much energy, it can also be frustrating to understand their moods. Nothing seems to hold their attention for too long and their emotional outbursts can be draining out for the parent. Alternative healing offers certain remedies to bring about calmness and reduce the feelings of frustration and stress in both the parent and child.
Deep breathing :
This is a highly effective technique that immediately calms one down. Teach your child to breathe deeply when they’re beginning to get frustrated and restless.
Massage :
Gently rub in lavender infused massage oils into your child’s temples or shoulders. Lavender has a calming effect and helps release the stress. Besides, the bond between the parent and child grows.
Bath salts :
Scented bath salts like lavender, jasmine and sandalwood are good cleansers and help remove toxins from the body. A few teaspoons mixed in a tub of water will help a hyperactive child relax considerably.
Natural light :
Studies have revealed that children who spend more time indoors or in artificial lighting get bored and restless more than children who play outdoors daily. Ensure your child is getting enough physical exercise outdoors on a daily basis. While playing indoors ensure he or she receives adequate sunlight in the room.
Pastel colors :
Bright red, orange and yellow are stimulating colors. Studies indicate too much red in the wardrobe or on the walls and bed linen raise the blood pressure levels and subsequently stress levels and aggression. Pastel colors like sky blue, light green, peach and baby pink soothe the child and work towards bringing the body’s energies back to balance.
Healing crystals :
Moonstone, blue lace agate and even rose quartz are the gentle soothers of crystal healing. Moonstone in particular brings a sense of calm and clarity and can reduce impulsiveness which may be destructive. While blue lace agate reduces anger and rose quartz brings in a sense of loving kindness towards oneself and others around.
Hyperactive children don’t need our raised voices. They need our love, understanding and willingness to work for greater peace.

Tuesday, February 15, 2011

India, China to be among top five domestic aviation markets

-- Source of News : Economic Times ---

When any industry grows, it supports the country economy. According to the published node in Economic times, Indian aviation industry is expected to grow in next two years. The domestic aviation business of India will be among five largest in the next two years. So it is good news for youngsters, lot of opportunity will arise.

For detail news check

Boeing unveils new 747-8 passenger plane

-- Source of News : Yahoo News ---

Boeing has unveiled a new 747 passenger jet to rival the Airbus A380.

The new Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental, which measures 250 feet in length, will be the world’s longest passenger jet.

The 747-8 has a capacity of 467 passengers, 51 more than the current 747. It was introduced to an audience of 10,000 in a factory in Everett, Washington, yesterday.

The 747-8 also has 16 percent less carbon emissions per passenger, and a noise footprint that is reduced by 30 percent from its predecessor the 747-400, according to Boeing.

The new 747-8 Intercontinental features the latest in innovative technologies -- applying many of the breakthroughs also found on the 787 Dreamliner," said Jim Albaugh, Boeing Commercial CEO, referring to the carbon-composite plane whose delivery has been delayed by three years.

The passengers will also enjoy the comfort of the striking new interior. The redesigned interior consists of a new curved, upswept architecture that is intended to give passengers a greater sense of space. There's also more room for personal belongings on the new plane.

Reuters reported that the 747-8 is currently listed at US$317.5 million. So far, Boeing has secured 33 orders for the passenger jet, including orders from Lufthansa and Korean Air.

The first delivery will take place in the fourth quarter this year.

The freighter version of the 747-8 has already taken flight and is set for delivery later this year. Boeing has so far won 74 orders for the 747-8 freight

Check the unveils photographs on the following yahoo news node :

Yoga at the workstation

--- Source of Information : ---

Today we are workaholic, we don’t bother about physical activities, most times are spend in offices.

When we are in offices, habit yourself periodically, ideally every two hours, straighten your legs and only move your feet forward and backward. Feel the tension in your calves. Rotate your ankles, clockwise and anticlockwise. Flex and stretch your toes too.

This activities will benefit to improve blood circulation in legs, relieves stiffness in calves and ankles and prevents muscle fatigue.

For detail information, check the node

Monday, February 14, 2011

Career in Hospital administration

Nowdays there are lot of choices to build career, the below extract fom details the carrer in Hospital administration i.e. educational qualifcation, expected salary ... etc.

-- Source of Information : --

Here’s a quick look at what’s in store if you choose a career in hospital administration

With the growing importance of the industry, hospital management courses are becoming very popular. An individual from a medical or a non-medical background can pursue a career in hospital administration/management. The pre-requisite is a graduation (medical/ non-medical) or a degree/ diploma in hospital administration.

A fresh graduate with a Master’s degree in health services or hospital administration may start their professional career as assistant hospital administrators or as managers of various departments like the front office, public relations, finance, quality control … etc. Experienced and senior hospital administrators can eventually reach the position of Chief Executive Officer (CEO). It is these people who are supposed to report to the board of directors or the governing body of the hospital.

Degree/diploma holders in hospital management can find employment in large corporate/ public/private sector hospitals, clinics, international and national healthcare organisations and health insurance companies, college and universities, healthcare centres, nursing homes, mental health organisations, public health departments, rehabilitation centres, pharmaceuticals and hospital supply firms, medical software companies and hospital consulting firms. Those having a Masters in Hospital Management with four to five years of experience can get employment as lecturers as well. With several years of experience in the field, one could even set up their own nursing home or hospital.

Courses on offer

The main professional courses available in this field are a Bachelor of Hospital Management / Administration, Post Graduate Diploma in Hospital Management / Administration, Master of Hospital Administration, MBA in Hospital Administration and MD/M Phil in Hospital Administration. Apart from these programmes, there are about 70 accredited programmes in healthcare administration.

There can be certificate courses, diploma courses as well.

The MHA (Hospital) programme prepares students for leadership roles by training them in planning, operational and project management of hospitals. The programme also imparts training in managing financial, material and human resources as well as planning and managing information systems.


Eligibility for Bachelors in Hospital Management / Administration (BHA) is 10+2 with Biology with a minimum of 50 per cent marks. One can do post-graduate / diploma courses and an MBA in Hospital Administration after graduation in any subject. But the eligibility criteria for PG courses may vary according to the course and the institute concerned.

For institutes like the All India Institute for Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Armed Forces Medical College, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya , Symbiosis Centre of Health Care (SCHC) etc, the minimum qualification for PG courses is an MBBS.

Selection procedure

Selection to the Bachelor of Hospital Administration (BHA) is generally on the basis of the marks obtained in +2 and through general entrance test, followed by a group discussion and/or personal interview. In the Institute of Health Management Research (IHMR) Bangalore, the candidates are selected for admission to PGPHM / PGPPHM only on the basis of personal interviews conducted by the faculty of the Institute at Bangalore and other cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Hyderabad. The selection criterion will also take into account the candidates command over English Language, skill in communicating, computer handling and overall managerial ability.


BBM/ Bachelor of Hospital Administration (BHA) a three-year course. Diploma / MBA/ Masters in Hospital Administration (MHA)/ Management is of two years (four semesters). A Post Graduate Professional Programme in Hospital Management (PGPHM) is for 11 months.


Remuneration of a hospital administrator / manager depends on the type of organisation s/he works for. In India, a junior hospital manager can earn a starting salary in the range of Rs 8,000 - Rs 12,000 per month. An experienced and qualified hospital manager can earn more than Rs 40, 000 per month. Large corporate organisations pay a lucrative amount as salary. Lecturers in hospital management can expect around of Rs 15, 000 per month, says an industry expert.

The demand for skilled and experienced hospital managers in foreign countries is reasonably high. The salary offered by hospitals abroad may be a number of times more than that of the salary offered in India.

Kandoshi Village, Khed - Ratnagiri

Kandoshi Village is located in Khed Taluka, Ratnagiri District. It is surrounded by Sahyadri hills range and villages such as Kinjale, Kalmani, Birmani, Vadgaon. East zone is surrounded by Ghat Matha i.e. Kandat, Uchat, Devli, Ghonaspur, which comes under Mahableshwar Taluka region.

Kandoshi Village have four wadies (division); they are Sutarwadi, Dukkardhond, Boudhwadi, Raowadi and these wadies are connected with roads.

Villager’s life mostly depends on agriculture.

Kandoshi is surrounded by Shivkalin fort such as Rasalgad, Mahipatgad, Sumargad, Makarandgad, which is inspires for nature tourism and river sport tourism in future. Khed – Satara highway will be beneficial for Konkan and Ghatmatha districts.

The forest is covered by different trees and medical herbals i.e. Ain, Alu, Karvand, Amba, Anjani, Apta, Awala, Biba, Wavali, Kinjal, Shihekai, Hirda, Chiwari, Khair, Sag, Sevga, Jambhul, Karvi, Kadipatta … etc under tropical climate.

Wild animal such as Chitha, Bibatya are mainly found of this forest, but other various animals like Bhekara, Dukkar, Rabbit, Mongoose, Bhatai Jungle cat, Vanar monkeys, Mongoose also lives in these jungle. Bird Species specially Lavha, Kavada, Peacock seen sometime.

Facts about Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (ST Bus)

--- Source Information : Wikipedia --

Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC), also referred to as MSRTC, or simply ST, is the state run bus service of Maharashtra, India with 16,000 buses which ferry 7 million (70 lakh) passengers daily on 17,000 routes. It is the third largest bus service provider in India (after APSRTC and TNSTC) and serves routes to towns and cities within Maharashtra and adjoining states. Apart from locations within the state of Maharashtra, the MSRTC service also covers destinations such as Ahmedabad and Surat (in Gujarat), Bangalore (in Karnataka), Goa and Indore (in Madhya Pradesh). It is one of the largest fleet owners in India. It also offers a facility for online booking of tickets for all 17000 routes.

History :

Early bus services in Maharashtra (then part of the states of Bombay, Madhya Pradesh and Hyderabad) were started in the early 1920s largely due to efforts of local entrepreneurs. With no regulatory laws governing public transportation services these services run in ad hoc manner. The Motor Vehicle Act of 1939 brought in amongst many other things, regulation of fares, standard routes and rules for governance and monitoring of public transportation providers. As a result of the act individual operators were asked to form a union on defined routes in a particular area. Bus schedules were set in, pick-up points, conductors, and fixed ticket prices were mandated.

Still passenger woes continued and then in 1948 Bombay State Government, started its own state sponsored road transport service called State Transport of Bombay. The first blue and silver-topped bus took off from Pune to Ahmednagar in 1948. In mean time, in 1950 the central government under the initiative of Morarji Desai the then home minister passed the Road Transport Corporation Act. This act delegated powers to states to form their individual road transport corporations, the central government would contribute up to a third of the establishment of such services. The Bombay State Road Transport Corporation (BSRTC) was formed following this, later on whose name was changed to Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation after the re-organization of the states.

Bus fleet :

MSRTC is one of the largest fleet owners in India, operating a fleet of approximately 16000 buses that ferry 7 million (70 lakh) passengers daily on 17,000 routes. The Ordinary, Parivartan, Asiad and City Buses are built at MSRTC's in-house workshops at Pune, Aurangabad, and Nagpur on Ashok Leyland and TATA chassis. These workshops produce as high as 2000 buses per annum on an average! The real secret of the buses built at MSRTC workshops lies in their safe and light-weight body structures with low on maintenance and cost effective design. This along with a regular and exhaustive periodic maintenance of MSRTC has resulted in huge profits for the corporation and comfort and safety to the passengers. The corporation has 9 Tyre Retreading Plants along with 32 Divisional Workshops and has evolved as one of the best State Transport service providers to the nation.

Trivia :

Mumbai - Bangalore is the longest running bus covering approximately 978 km. Mount Abu, Raipur, and Bangalore are the most Northern, Eastern, and Southern ends respectively reached by MSRTC bus service
Has the largest bus fleet in the world after London metro bus service
Before changing to trademark red color in 1967 the color of the buses was mostly blue and yellow.

Ratnagiri Tourist Spots

-- Source of Information, ---

Ratnagiri district offers the most diverse attractions for the tourists. The district is endowed with many tourist assets. The rising hills of Sahyadri on east and the depths of Arabian sea on the west contribute to the unparallel beauty of Ratnagiri. Ratnagiri is blessed with hills, sea shores, creeks, beautiful rivers, hot water springs, forests and water falls among many others.

Several Places to Visit :

• Places of worship : Ganapatipule, Velneshwar, Marleshwar, Hedvi, Hatis, Parshuram [Chiplun], Rajapur

• Caves: Panhalekazi, Sangameshwar

• Palace: Thibaw Palace [Ratnagiri]

• Sea Shores: Kelshi, Murud, Guhaghar, Palshet, Ganpatipule, Velneshwar

• Beaches: Mandovi [Gateway of Ratnagiri], Bhatye, Guhagar, Anjarla, Ganapatipule

• Birth Places of eminent personalities: Ratnagiri, Malgund, Dapoli, Palgad

• Forts: Bankot, Mandangad, Ambolgad, Jaigad, Ratnadurg, Mahipatgad

• Sea Forts: Ratnadurg, Harne, Purnagad, Jaigad

• Bird Sanctuaries: Vanadi valley, Anaskura Ghat

• Exotic forests: Pat Panhale, Bavnadi valley

• Timeless Landscapes: Goval, Hatlot Ghat, Tivare Ghat, Amba

• Hill and Hill Ranges: Sahyadrian Ranges

• Rivers: Jagbudi, Vashisti, Kasavi

• Irrigation Projects: Natuwadi, Nandivali, Kolkewadi

• Water Falls: Parshuram, Prachitgad, Marleshwar

• Hot water Spring : Unhavare, Aravali, Tural, Rajapur

Gustatory Delight : While non-vegetarian food is not too easily available around the temple area, one can gorge on rice and fish curry in coconut base [with 'Kokam kadi' - A pink colored digestive drink that promises to neutralise the effects of the spicy treat.] on the outskirts of the village.

Shopping : Shop artifacts made of seashells. The konkan region blessed with some of the finest horticulture fruits, offers a variety of local preparations like 'ambapoli' [thin pancakes of dried and crushed mangoes], 'phanaspoli' [thin pancakes of dried and crushed jackfruit], cashewnuts, coconuts etc. Summer time is best know for most famous variety of mangoes in the world - the Devgad 'hapus' mango.

MSRTC to lay Computerized Automated Test Track

-- Source News : ---

Mumbai, Wednesday, 3rd February, 2011

In a first of its kind project in the State, Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC) will be the first STU in the country to develop and lay out a Computerized Automated Test Track which will test and also help in developing skills of its drivers. The track is being laid out across four acres of land at MSRTC's Central Training Institute (CTI) at Bhosari, near Pune city.

Currently construction work is in full swing and should be completed by April 30. Out of the total budgeted cost of Rs 2.30 crore, Rs 1.60 crore has been earmarked for civil work, while remaining finance will be used for computer software and hardware.

Giving details of the project, Mr.Deepak Kapoor, Vice Chairman and Managing Director of MSRTC, said, "The track will be completely controlled by computers, without any human interference. The purpose of this track is to check and improve drivers' skill level. The track will have conditions to test driving skills of the individual on various types of roads viz straight stretch, gradient (ghat driving), narrow and sharp turns and potholed roads. Performance during the test will be recorded by the computers and an instant computerized result will be available at the end of the test. This eradicates any room for human error. This way we certainly hope to stop the complaints and also aim to minimize accidents on the road".

"As a larger measure, the MSRTC will also permit the Regional Transport Authorities (RTA) and others to conduct their driving tests on this track for a minimum fee of Rs 50-60 per candidate. This fee will go towards maintenance of the track" Kapoor added.